Introduction to Communication Science Coursera

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Introduction to Communication Science Coursera

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Week- 1

An Introduction to Communication Science

 

1.
Question 1
What is ‘noise’?

1 point

  • Everything that can cause a disruption in the flow of communication
  • The receiver’s incorrect interpretation of a sent message
  • Everything that prevents communication from having an effect on the receiver

2.
Question 2
According to Lasswell and Shannon & Weaver, what is effective communication?

1 point

  • Communication is effective when a sender’s message is interpreted correctly by the receiver
  • Communication is effective when the sender can send the message without any interfering noise
  • Communication is effective when the receiver has a positive attitude towards this message.

3.
Question 3
Through ..(1).. we test and improve ..(2)..

1 point

  • (1) hypotheses , (2) theories
  • (1) research, (2) theories
  • (1) research, (2) hypotheses

4.
Question 4
What is intrapersonal communication?

1 point

  • Talking about a message with someone
  • Internalizing a message
  • A message that concerns a specific person

5.
Question 5
The three approaches emphasize different aspects of communication. These are:

1 point

  • Transmission of Ideas, Interpretation, restoring equilibrium
  • Shaping attitudes and beliefs, revealing the context, receiver’s interpretation as intended by sender
  • Transmission of messages, production and exchange of meaning, creating a social reality

6.
Question 6
Which concept is comparable to ‘viewglasses’?

1 point

  • Hypothesis
  • Theories
  • Paradigms

7.
Question 7
When I’m searching for a word in the dictionary, what is the function of communication?

1 point

  • Connative function
  • Metalingual function
  • Phatic function

8.
Question 8
What is social constructionism?

1 point

  • The act of conforming within a group, whereby we align ourselves with in-groups or ourselves against out-groups
  • The human need to belong to a group, culture or society
  • The idea that people construct a cultural and social reality by continually communicating values, attitudes and ideas

9.
Question 9
When do we speak of dominant or preferred definitions of concepts?

1 point

  • Definitions change over time and from context to context
  • A definition is considered dominant when it’s true
  • All definitions find their roots in one single definition, the dominant definition

10.
Question 10
To which of the approaches do the following lines refer?

1. Communication can be wrong |

2. Communication is the exchange of meaning |

3. A triangular model

1 point

  • 1=signification, 2=signification, 3=signification
  • 1=transmission, 2=signification, 3=transmission
  • 1=transmission, 2=signification, 3=signification

11.
Question 11
Why is communication not a linear process according to Jacobson’s model?

1 point

  • Every message refers to something outside of the message
  • The intention of the sender does not always correspond with the receivers Interpretation
  • The context and the code are important to sender and receiver, not for the message

12.
Question 12
When we discuss ´the mass media´ in general, what do communication scientists mean?

1 point

  • Television, eyes
  • Voice, hands
  • Computers, mobile phones, television

13.
Question 13
The process of giving meaning to signs is called … ?

1 point

  • Signification
  • Polysemic interpretation
  • Methodology

 

History of Communication Science

 

1.
Question 1
Which particular aspect of communication was important in Ancient Greece?

1 point

Persuading people

Informing people

Entertaining people

2.
Question 2
Logos, Ethos and Pathos constitute three building blocks of ….?

1 point

Sending out a message

Successful communication

Trustworthiness of a speaker

3.
Question 3
Medieval times are often called the ‘Dark ages’; How did they affect communication science?

1 point

The science had to be practised secretly

Little Communication Science was practised during that period of time

The elite misused the knowledge of communication science to keep power over the masses

4.
Question 4
How do we know ‘communication’ was a topic of discussion in Ancient Greece?

1 point

They wrote books about the topic

Greek legends speculate about political communication in Ancient Greece

Greek mythology has many stories about political communication

5.
Question 5
The ‘Treatise on Persuasive Theory’ written by Aristotle was inspired by …..

1 point

Both

Sophists

Dialectic method

6.
Question 6
Why is it we know so much about Socrates and Plato?

1 point

Aristotle and Cicero referred to the writings by Plato in their books

The writings by Plato were copied by medieval monks

Renaissance scholars have found original copies of their books in old libraries

7.
Question 7
How do Greek and Roman theories on communication relate to each other?

1 point

The Romans disapproved of Greek theories on communication

The Greeks tried to perfect on Roman theories on communication

The Romans tried to perfect Greek theories on communication

8.
Question 8
Which of the following statements regarding the Dark Ages and the Byzantium Empire are true?

1. Classical literature was still studied in the Eastern Roman Empire of Byzantium

2. Byzantine scholars made use of the extensive libraries in Western Europe

3. The Western Roman Empire had collapsed but the Eastern Roman Empire continued in the Byzantine Empire.

1 point

Statement 1 & 3

Statement 1 & 2

Statement 2 & 3

9.
Question 9
How do we define the Enlightened democratic ideal?

1 point

Governments are for the people and therefore should listen to the people

Mass media is a reflection of public opinion

The government is representative of all people in the society

10.
Question 10
What did the main carriers of political mass communication in the Middle Ages communicate?

1 point

Who was in power and how to behave as a citizen

Details of political programs

News on events happening throughout the country

11.
Question 11
How was it possible to reach a mass audience during the Dark Ages?

1 point

Through pamphlets and books

Through plays and theatre (or theatre productions)

Through Sunday mass and architecture

12.
Question 12
Renaissance newspapers were in many ways an elite medium. The following reason is false:

1 point

The costs were high

Regular citizens were often forbidden to read newspapers

They covered mostly foreign and ‘dry’ political news

13.
Question 13
During the nineteenth century newspapers …?

1 point

Attracted more attention

Focused more on foreign news

Became more informative

14.
Question 14
What did Rhetorica teach?

1 point

How to argue logically

How to debate

How to persuade someone

15.
Question 15
From which angle did Nicollo Machiavelli approached the topic of mass communication?

1 point

Political angle

Religious angle

Ethical angle

16.
Question 16
Why did the invention of weapons like the crossbow influence the political power balance?

1 point

It was the first sufficient weapon invented by citizens unknown to the elite

Knights disdained the use of this weapon

An untrained citizen was now able to pose a threat to a well-trained knight

 

Week- 2

The Linear Effect-Oriented Approach

 

1.
Question 1
Which of the following statements about frames is true?

1 point

Frames have an effect on the amount of time people think about a particular topic

Frames have an effect on how people deconstruct a message

Frames reinforce rather than change people’s opinion about a subject

2.
Question 2
What do we mean by ‘Cultivation Effects’?

1 point

People learn how to behave in a social setting

People tend to shift towards the dominant media viewpoints on matters after repeated long-term exposure

We learn norms and values in an informal way

3.
Question 3
Scientific studies in the twenties and thirties…

1 point

proved the powerful effects hypothesis

proved that effects were actually very limited

failed to prove anything, since there were so many variables involved

4.
Question 4
This statement is true:

1 point

There were many contextual factors that contributed to the panic in 1938

In real life people did not panic at all

The duration of the effect was very short-term, and therefore by the prevalent definition not a real powerful effect

5.
Question 5
People had many reasons to question the all-powerful media paradigm. This was not one of them

1 point

Several case studies showed minimal effects of the media

Traditional research methods were outdated

Studies showed many other influential variables

6.
Question 6
There were several reasons for a general reluctance to accept the minimal effect hypothesis. This was not one of them

1 point

People learned more about the horrors of the Second World War

The introduction of television

The clear agenda-setting effects of newspapers in presidential campaigns

7.
Question 7
Which of the following statements is true?

1 point

The “powerful media rediscovered perspective” presumes uniform effects

The “powerful media rediscovered perspective” presumes long-term effects

The all-powerful media paradigm focuses on reinforcement rather than change

8.
Question 8
In week 1 we discussed three approaches. This approach allows for only one valid outcome

1 point

The Linear Transmission approach

The Cultural approach

The Reception approach

9.
Question 9
The all-powerful media paradigm supposes

1 point

Long-term effects

Cultivation effects

Passive audience

10.
Question 10
Why was it difficult to prove the power of media in reality?

1 point

Because market researchers did not share their findings with scientists

Because too many other variables were involved

Because some scientists manipulated their research findings

11.
Question 11
What does the ‘Inoculation Theory’ tell us?

1 point

Media influence is both a direct and an indirect process

A prepared audience is better able to block persuasive attempts

An audience is able to select their messages

12.
Question 12
The all-powerful media paradigm considers effects on audiences to be ‘uniform’. This means that…

1 point

audience factors are relevant

Everyone in an audience reacts the same way

Individual differences are lost in large-scale quantitative surveys

13.
Question 13
The all-powerful media paradigm supposes

1 point

Reinforcing effects

Indirect effects

immediate effects

14.
Question 14
How can we define ‘press freedom’ as adopted in the Fourth Estate?

1 point

No restrictions, except government intervention in severe cases

Freedom from any restriction

A code for journalists to check upon one another’s work

15.
Question 15
According to the paradigm of negotiated media effects which statement is true?

1 point

Media and communication have a potential for great power (under some circumstances)

Media and communication have powerful effects

Mass media and communication have minimal effects

16.
Question 16
A commercial shows a famous soccer player drinking Coca Cola. After repeatedly seeing this commercial people will associate Coca Cola with a healthy appearance. This is an example of:

1 point

An Associated effect

Hypermediality

A Socialization effect

 

 

The Reception and Signification Perspective

 

1.
Question 1
What do the main theories on media effects have in common?

1 point

They claim that effects can never be proven

They assume that media have some kind of effect

They assume that effects are long-lasting

2.
Question 2
This is not a peripheral cue:

1 point

Humour

Fear

Rational argument

3.
Question 3
The form of a sign is in Saussure’s model referred to as the …

1 point

Sign

Signified

Signifier

4.
Question 4
What is incorrect according to the Uses and Gratification Theory?

1 point

People are aware of their needs

The process of seeking out media happens subconsciously

People actively seek out media to fulfill their needs

5.
Question 5
What is the name of a person who has the power to put things on the media agenda?

1 point

Primer

Agenda keeper

Gatekeeper

6.
Question 6
Messages with different valid meanings are called …

1 point

Polysemic messages

Oliosemic messages

Monosemic messages

7.
Question 7
Which of the following statements about ‘cognitive bias’ is true?

1 point

A cognitive bias is basically a limitation of balanced processing

A cognitive bias is basically a mental shortcut

Cognitive biases enable us to consciously make processing decisions

8.
Question 8
How does the reception theory bridge the gap between the signification approach and the cultural approach?

1 point

Communication is seen as a carrier, a reflection and producer of culture

Communication is only successful when people have a shared cultural background

Cultural messages are decoded differently than other messages

9.
Question 9
Which of the following statements is true?

1 point

The blocking, selection and amplification of information is usually a conscious process

The blocking, selection and amplification of information is usually an unnecessary process

The blocking, selection and amplification of information is usually an subconscious process

10.
Question 10
Ana is switching channels and picks a news channel. The item is about the discovery of the atom. Ana has never been interested in chemistry. Still, she keeps watching because an attractive man is talking about this magnificent atom and how this discovery could mean a huge leap for mankind.

Will Ana process this message through the central or the peripheral route, or is it hard to tell with the information provided?

1 point

Peripheral route

It’s not possible to answer this question with the information provided

Central route

11.
Question 11
Cognitive shortcuts might be influenced by …

1 point

Both options.

Personal background, experience, and interests

The mass media

12.
Question 12
Sometimes a cognitive bias is viewed as a limitation. Why?

1 point

Because it can cause selective processing

Because it can lead to irrational decision-making

Because it can cause large opinion changes

13.
Question 13
Which statement about ‘monosemic messages’ is true?

1 point

A monosemic message is an open text

A monosemic message is a painting

A monosemic message leaves little room for more than one interpretation

14.
Question 14
Why do predispositions play a role in message deconstruction?

1 point

People tend to select messages in accord to their prior beliefs

People process information in line with prior beliefs much quicker

People block messages including negative news

15.
Question 15
In what order did these paradigms on media effects appear in the twentieth century?

1 point

All-powerful media, minimal effects, negotiated effects

Limited effects, all-powerful media, minimal effects

Powerful media, negotiated effects, powerful media rediscovered

16.
Question 16
What is not true about message deconstruction?

1 point

It varies from person to person

It depends on the numberof people being exposed to a message

It supposes a lot of audience activity

 

 

Week- 3

The Cultural Approach

1.
Question 1
Which statement does not fit the idea of social constructionism?

1 point

Reality is fixed and objective

Reality lives, evolves and dies with the people who construct them

Reality exists outside of social constructs

2.
Question 2
Who sees popularity as an indicator of quality?

1 point

John Fiske

Stuart Hall

Marshall McLuhan

3.
Question 3
Which statement does not fit the idea of Social Constructionism?

1 point

it is artificial

it is a reflection of the vulgar taste of the masses

it is produced to keep the masses from revolting

4.
Question 4
Jake is a student. He is uncertain if the teacher expects him to give a presentation. He asks his fellow student for advice. This strategy is called ..

1 point

An interactive strategy

A passive strategy

An active strategy

5.
Question 5
Why is a shared cultural background so important to people?

1 point

It creates a feeling of belonging

It enables us to minimize the effect of a culture shift

It allows us to block unwelcome messages

6.
Question 6
Stuart Hall..

1 point

is a frontrunner of the Cultural Approach

is a frontrunner of both the Reception Theory and the Cultural Approach

is a frontrunner of the Reception Theory

7.
Question 7
What affects the transmission of a message, according to Stuart Hall?

1 point

Cultural conformity

Cultural proximity

Cultural relativism

8.
Question 8
Which statement fits the principle of ‘cultural relativism’?

1 point

Every culture believes it is the ‘correct’ culture

Many different, but equally valid cultures exist at the same time

There is one leading universal human culture besides other smaller cultures

9.
Question 9
Following the principle of ‘cultural relativism’, why do we constantly communicate?

1 point

To adjust easily to technological reinventions

To minimize the discomfort of cultural change

To keep in touch with cultural reality

10.
Question 10
Scholars have identified several main reasons why people fold under group pressure, for example:

1 point

People will copy group behaviour out of fear for new situations

People are afraid to isolate themselves socially

Group members often unconsciously tend to follow the peripheral route while processing information, and therefore they often agree with their peers

11.
Question 11
What is not true about pop culture?

1 point

Pop culture is only communicated through media

Pop culture is communicated on a large scale and both through personal and mediated communication

Pop culture communicates mainstream values, ideas and truths

12.
Question 12
According to Hofstede, culture creates a feeling of belonging or not-belonging. He refers to the fact that…

1 point

no such thing as one human culture exists

culture identifies us

culture is internalized

13.
Question 13
We discussed three schools of thought on popular culture. Which two schools focus on power structures communicated through popular culture?

1 point

Birmingham and Frankfurter School

Frankfurter and Toronto School

Toronto and Birmingham School

14.
Question 14
Which statement is true about the ‘Spiral of Silence’?

1 point

The Spiral of Silence applies specifically to Second World War Germany

The Spiral of Silence applies to societal level and group level

The Spiral of Silence does not apply to situations on a societal level

15.
Question 15
Which model suits the Cultural Approach best?

1 point

Newcomb’s model

Xavier’s model

Jakobson’s model

16.
Question 16
Berger and Calabrese identified these three communication strategies to deal with uncertainty:

1 point

Interactive strategy, active strategy, passive strategy

Observation strategy, active strategy, interactive strategy

Asking strategy, observation strategy, interaction strategy

 

 

Week- 4

Exam Part 1

 

1.
Question 1
This statement is false: In the Middle Ages…

1 point

Christian monks kept and copied classical texts on communication

The study of classical texts on communication was popular among the nobility

Eastern scholars kept and copied classical texts on communication

2.
Question 2
Which answer is the correct representation of Shannon and Weaver’s transmission model of 1949:

1 point

Who, says What, in which Channel, to Whom, and with what Effect

A message goes – through a channel – from sender to receiver where it creates an effect. This transmission can be disrupted by noise.

Some kinds of communication, on some kinds of issues, brought to the attention of some kinds of people, under some kinds of conditions, have some kinds of effects

3.
Question 3
In this course we used this dominant definition of ‘information’

1 point

meaningful messages, including thoughts, ideas and emotion

everything that means something for the sender

everything that means something for the receiver

4.
Question 4
July conducts an experiment. She pushes a button. She expects this will turn on the light in the other room. Pushing the button is ….

1 point

the dependent variable

the codependent variable

the independent variable

5.
Question 5
Communication scientists regard each carrier of communication as …..

1 point

a text

signifier

language

6.
Question 6
In Classical Europe…

1 point

more people were able to read and write than in Medieval Europe

communication science was merely a theoretical science

the Romans disdained Greek theories on communication

7.
Question 7
In this course we used this dominant definition of ‘communication’

1 point

each act of transmitting information

conscious transmitting of information

voluntary transmitting of information

8.
Question 8
This theoretical approach sees communication mainly as a means to reach the truth

1 point

the dialectical school

the sophist school

rhetorica

9.
Question 9
Which answer is the correct representation of Laswell’s linear transmission model of 1948:

1 point

Who, says What, in which Channel, to Whom, and with what Effect

Some kinds of communication, on some kinds of issues, brought to the attention of some kinds of people, under some kinds of conditions, have some kinds of effects

A message goes – through a channel – from sender to receiver where it creates an effect. This transmission can be disrupted by noise

10.
Question 10
Jake is thinking about what his brother said earlier today. This is ….. communication

1 point

intrapersonal

linear

interpersonal

11.
Question 11
The Pyramid of Communication is a model that visualizes

1 point

how audiences of different sizes are formed

different levels of communication in society

how communication influences our daily lives

12.
Question 12
Tom is a car salesman. He tries to increase his sales by buying a new suit and practicing his charming smile. He tries to convince his customers by showing them how trustworthy and friendly he is. He now focuses on this part of the message…

1 point

ethos

pathos

logos

13.
Question 13
Which of the following statements is false?

1 point

Gutenberg introduced the moveable type, the cliché, in the printing process

Gutenberg revolutionized the printing industry

Gutenberg invented the printing press

14.
Question 14
In this course we used this dominant definition of ‘media’

1 point

media are the channels that we use to communicate

media are a tool of governments to inform and influence the masses

the media form a political institute that acts as a check on government power

15.
Question 15
I am writing a birthday card for my friend. This communicative act has, according to Jacobson

1 point

a conative function

a poetic function

an emotive function

16.
Question 16
The first books about the science of communication (that survived in copied form) were written in the

1 point

fifth century B.C

sixth century B.C.

fourth century B.C.

17.
Question 17
A …. message has only one correct interpretation

1 point

monosemic

polysemic

unisemic

18.
Question 18
Social scientists often refer to humans as ‘social animals’ because

1 point

when we are part of a group, civilization quickly vanishes and people act like animals

we are constantly engaged in group dynamics because of our need to connect to others

people make social decisions based on what’s best for their own security and well-being

19.
Question 19
In Aristotle’s model of communication: the first stage of communication, when the topic is determined, is called the

1 point

sender stage

invention stage

ethos stage

20.
Question 20
Which of the following statements is false?

1 point

the process of giving meaning to a sign is called signification

The science of signs was born in the nineteen sixties

The specific form of a sign is called the signifier

21.
Question 21
A … is a word or set of words that represent an idea

1 point

concept

model

theory

22.
Question 22
Which of the following statements is true?

1 point

Sophists bridged the gap between rhetorical and dialectical theory

Plato wrote one of the first surviving new media criticisms

Aristotle opposed rhetorical theory

23.
Question 23
The Newcomb model has three elements. A, B and X. This statement is false

1 point

X is never a third person

if one of these factors changes, this changes the relationship between the three

the main purpose of communication is to help us create a social balance

24.
Question 24
Which of the following statements is false?

1 point

The study of signs and signification is called semiology

The specific form our communication takes is called, in the Jacobson model, a sign

The study of communication systems is called semiotics

25.
Question 25
Kim calls her boyfriend each night. Usually they just make small talk before they hang up. This communication has – according to Jacobson – a

1 point

metalingual function

phatic function

referential function

 

 

Exam Part 2

 

1.
Question 1
Hypermediality is

1 point

when people make statements about the media

when people reference media content

when people read media content in different levels

2.
Question 2
This statement is false. An important part of the social responsibility model is

1 point

that there is room for government interference

that the media should govern themselves

that media play such an important role in society, ownership has to be in hand of the people

3.
Question 3
After reading many comic books, Jacob has adopted the moral views of ‘his’ superheroes. He believes that the strong should protect the weak and evil should always be fought. This example fits the theory of

1 point

Social Learning

Agenda-Setting

Socialization

4.
Question 4
Many factors contributed to the rebirth of our scientific discipline in the late Middle Ages. This is not one of them

1 point

the fall of Constantinople, the capital of Byzantium

the Black Plague

the rediscovery of Aristotle’s and Cicero’s texts

5.
Question 5
There are two important reasons for the rediscovery of the all-powerful media paradigm. This is not one of them

1 point

scientific research in the nineteen forties debunked the minimal effect hypothesis

the rise of television

the many presumed effects of propaganda during the Second World War

6.
Question 6
Which of the following statements is false? The media as a Fourth Estate

1 point

function as a check on government power

was a term coined by Oscar Wilde

function as a communicative link between government and people

7.
Question 7
Machiavelli was one of the first ‘new’ scientists to discuss communication. He approached the topic from

1 point

a human interest angle

from an ethical angle

a political power angle

8.
Question 8
Which of the following statements is false? The Fourth Estate ideal

1 point

required a free press

was a short-lived trend in the nineteenth century

was adopted by many countries in the 19th century

9.
Question 9
According to the dominant definition

1 point

education is considered propaganda

propaganda is a systematic and deliberate manipulation of the masses

propaganda is fundamentally immoral

10.
Question 10
The classic example of the 1938 World of the Worlds radio show is used by scholars of …. to strengthen their argument

1 point

the all-powerful media approach

both the all-powerful media and the powerful media put to the test approaches

the powerful media put to the test approach

11.
Question 11
The social responsibility model

1 point

was a short-lived trend in the nineteen fifties

was introduced by the Commission on Freedom of the Press (1947)

radically opposed the Fourth Estate ideal

12.
Question 12
This is not part of the all-powerful media paradigm

1 point

immediate effects

uniform effects

enduring effects

13.
Question 13
At the beginning of the twentieth century

1 point

readership of newspapers started to dwindle

freedom of the press was explicitly guaranteed in most constitutions

communication science was a full-fledged scientific discipline

14.
Question 14
The powerful media rediscovered paradigm included

1 point

a belief in immediate and direct effects

a belief in uniform and indirect effects

a belief in personal and indirect effects

15.
Question 15
The two step flow theory

1 point

predicts that people are influenced only by repeated exposure to media messages

predicts that people are influenced by opinion leaders

predicts that people after their second exposure to a persuasive attempt become more resistant to influence

16.
Question 16
This statement is false. The first newspapers were introduced in the sixteenth century. They

1 point

contained mostly foreign news

immediately had a universal appeal

were a medium for the elite

17.
Question 17
Which of the following statements is false? Press barons, like the influential Pulitzer and Stead

1 point

emphasized fairness and truthfulness in reporting before all else

introduced new genres and topics in the newspaper

attracted new audience groups

18.
Question 18
This statement is false. The Second World War

1 point

showed that the media had failed it’s function as a Fourth Estate

fuelled the belief in powerful effects of the media

caused scientists to doubt the powerful effects hypothesis

19.
Question 19
After World War I

1 point

the Fourth Estate Model was discarded

scholars started to question the power of mediated communication

scholars noted the correlation between huge propaganda efforts and great presumed effects

20.
Question 20
The political party press explains the news from the perspective of one political ideology and is critical of other views. This metaphor is often used to describe them:

1 point

screen

signpost

opium for the people

21.
Question 21
The nineteenth century media landscape saw

1 point

the rise of the popular newspaper

a decline in the readership of books

the rise of radio as a mass medium

22.
Question 22
The dominant form of media governance includes a professional code of ethics

1 point

upheld by the law

upheld by an international court

upheld by a committee of media or professionals

23.
Question 23
The primary print mass medium for opinion and news during the Renaissance and Enlightenment was

1 point

the pamphlet

the newspaper

the letter

24.
Question 24
An important element in the minimal effects hypothesis is

1 point

that audience members use media to prove their allegiance to a group

that in real life, people behave very differently than in an experiment

that in real life there are too many variables to contribute persuasion to merely media exposure

25.
Question 25
Someone chokes on a chicken bone. Shirley successfully performs a Heimlich maneuver she learnt yesterday on an episode of ER. This example fits the theory of

1 point

Social Learning

Socialization

Cultivation

 

 

Exam Part 3

1.
Question 1
The … paradigm balances a belief in powerful effects with the notion of an active audience

1 point

minimal effects

balanced effects

negotiated effects

2.
Question 2
Jim writes a column. Ollie completely agrees with Jim’s views. This is according to Reception Theory a …

1 point

monosemic reading

closed reading

preferred reading

3.
Question 3
In an experiment supporters of two political parties were asked to watch journalists interview the main candidates of these parties. Both groups were convinced that journalist were more critical of ‘their’ candidate. This finding is explained by

1 point

the Spiral of Silence

the Hostile Media Effect

Framing

4.
Question 4
Bob wants to learn more about communication. He has already completed a university degree in a different field. Elly wants to persuade him to study Communication Science in Amsterdam. The ELM suggests Elly should try to convince him with

1 point

photos of students having a good time in Amsterdam

factual brochures and websites

jokes about Amsterdam and its university

5.
Question 5
The theory of Social Constructionism

1 point

distinguishes between real reality and constructed reality

completely challenges the idea that reality is fixed

explains how people fool themselves with a fake reality in order to cope with the world

6.
Question 6
People are aware of their media-related needs. This statement fits

1 point

Uses and Gratification Theory

Rational Choice Theory

Agenda-Setting Theory

7.
Question 7
At the core of Stuart Hall’s encoding/decoding model is the idea that people who are culturally closer to each other

1 point

will like each other better

are more likely to agree on the meaning of a message

have a shared social context

8.
Question 8
This metaphor fits the Frankfurter School’s approach to pop culture

1 point

platform

opium for the people

watchdog

9.
Question 9
Audience members actively choose to be part of an audience. This statement fits

1 point

Agenda-Setting Theory

Uses and Gratification Theory

Rational Choice Theory

10.
Question 10
Each turning point in the history of our media was caused by technical innovation, according to

1 point

Hall

Fiske

McLuhan

11.
Question 11
Gatekeeping is connected to the role of the media as a

1 point

screen

filter

watchdog

12.
Question 12
Harry believes he is a handsome man. Shirley tells him he is ugly. The Theory of Cognitive Dissonance predicts several possible reactions. This is not one of them

1 point

Harry tells Shirley she herself is ugly

Harry changes his mind about his looks

Harry thinks Shirley is jealous of his good looks

13.
Question 13
Global Warming receives a lot of media attention. During next year’s election, when people have to decide who to vote for, they will probably ask themselves what candidate X or Y’s views on Global Warming are. This statement fits

1 point

priming

the ELM

framing

14.
Question 14
One of the following statements is false. The principle of cultural relativism

1 point

is the idea that in the end, cultures are not really that different from each other

contains the notion that there are many cultures at one time

contains the notion that cultures change all the time

15.
Question 15
On a Thursday in country X, 7 million free newspapers are printed each day. They are distributed to 6 million travelers in subway, bus, and train stations. Many people take this newspaper to work or their homes so in total 10 million people read (a part) of this newspaper. According to the dominant definition, the reach of this newspaper is

1 point

10 million

7 million

6 million

16.
Question 16
One of the following statements is false. The study of culture

1 point

excludes the study of art and literature

includes that study of how people construct reality

includes the study of what separates people

17.
Question 17
One of the following statements is false according to the Birmingham School of Cultural Studies. Popular songs, movies and books

1 point

are a reflection of popular tastes

create a fake consciousness to keep the masses from rising up

implicitly communicate mainstream values, ideas and truths

18.
Question 18
The traditional audience paradigm

1 point

emphasizes group dynamics

focuses on personal traits of audience members

sees the audience as passive and uniform

19.
Question 19
The magic bullet metaphor

1 point

sees the audience as more powerful than the hypodermic needle metaphor

sees the audience as less powerful than the hypodermic needle metaphor

is interchangeable with the hypodermic needle metaphor

20.
Question 20
A monosemic message is a … text

1 point

open

closed

fixed

21.
Question 21
Signs are…

1 point

everything that can be interpreted as having meaning

everything that is meant to have meaning

non-verbal ‘texts’

22.
Question 22
In the Elaboration Likelihood Model humor fits the … route of persuasion

1 point

peripheral

subliminal

central

23.
Question 23
Jude is complimenting her daughter. She gently pats her on the head. This gesture is, according to the Jacobson model,

1 point

a code

non-verbal language

a direct cue

24.
Question 24
De Saussure explained that a … is made up of a … (its physical form) and a the concept it represents (…).

1 point

signifier, sign, signified

signified, signifier, sign

sign, signifier, signified

25.
Question 25
There are two levels of signification. Bill sees a picture of a cow. This makes him think back of his childhood when he grew up on a farm. This process of giving meaning is called

1 point

sensemaking

connotation

denotation

 

Exam Part 4

 

1.
Question 1
A literature study

1 point

is considered primary research

can be primary and secondary research

is considered secondary research

2.
Question 2
Which of the following statements is false? According to the Spiral of Silence theory

1 point

people are afraid of social isolation

people are very good in monitoring public opinion

if no one talks about a topic, it will receive little to no media attention

3.
Question 3
Which of the following statements is false?

1 point

research has disproven the hypothesis that cultural globalization is dominated by Anglo-American culture

the globalization trend has increased in recent years

wars are seen as one of the driving forces behind globalization

4.
Question 4
Which of the following statements is false?

1 point

globalization has been, to some degree, present in several stages in history

globalization is unique to our modern digital information age

a shared history due to colonization and imperialism is seen as one of the driving forces behind globalization

5.
Question 5
When someone adopts dominant group views and behavior, this is called

1 point

group pressure

groupthink

conformity

6.
Question 6
The media tell us what to think about (not what to think). This statement fits

1 point

Agenda-Setting Theory

Hypodermic Needle Theory

Theory of New Tribalism

7.
Question 7
Which of the following statements is false? ‘New tribes’

1 point

are typically somewhat alienated from society

often have their own channels and/or cultural content

are usually local in nature

8.
Question 8
According to the dominant definition, we speak of globalization of content when

1 point

content is received by an international audience

content is consistent with a global culture

content is produced for and received by an international audience

9.
Question 9
Some scholars see a trend called ‘New Tribalism’. An important element in this trend is

1 point

weakening of group commitment

a decline in the rate of globalization

strong group cultures

10.
Question 10
Conducting an experiment

1 point

can be primary and secondary research

is secondary research

is primary research

11.
Question 11
Usually, in a larger research design … leads to several … which can be proven or disproven through….

1 point

secondary research, metaphors, primary research

primary research, hypotheses, secondary research

desk research, hypotheses, primary research

12.
Question 12
People

1 point

aspire to belong to so-called out-groups

feel connected with a group

are only part of one culture at a time

13.
Question 13
The main difference between the popular mirror and window metaphors is

1 point

that mirror contains the idea that the image of reality is biased and incomplete

a mirror shows your reflection while a window shows something outside of yourself

that window opens up new avenues for thought while a mirror lets you reflect on them

14.
Question 14
When group members believe that journalists are biased against their side, this typically fits the …

1 point

Agenda-Setting Theory

Theory of New Tribalism

Hostile Media Effect

15.
Question 15
Which of the following statements is false? Metaphors

1 point

have a high level of denotation

have a high level of connotation

contain a wealth of information

16.
Question 16
Central to the views of … is the idea that when I cite a poem, the effect will be very different if I do so on paper, on a website or in sign language.

1 point

The Frankfurter School

The Toronto School

The Birmingham School

17.
Question 17
The Toronto School of Cultural Studies sees technical innovation as a (use the correct metaphor)

1 point

motor of societal change

a chaos factor in society

a variable that causes cultural renewal

18.
Question 18
The Global Village metaphor contains the idea that globalization

1 point

will result in greater understanding in the world

will cause cultural wars between the different ‘villages’

will cause more cultural misunderstanding

19.
Question 19
Clarice has just started a class on communication. She is unsure if she can ask questions during the lecture. She follows an interactive uncertainty reduction strategy and

1 point

goes online on her laptop and posts this question on a student forum

raises her hand and asks the lecturer if this is allowed

asks a student next to her if this is allowed

20.
Question 20
His car contains so much stuff, it looks like a driving flea-market. This is a

1 point

proverb

metaphor

simile

21.
Question 21
Even when tanks were rolling in to the capital, some media still pretend the war was far from the city. These media act as a

1 point

screen

signpost

market place of ideas

22.
Question 22
McLuhan argues that

1 point

each new medium takes over the form, style and function of older media

theories on New Media should not only apply to modern, but also to historical examples of new media

the rise of digital media is a completely new phenomenon in the media landscape and therefore requires completely new theories

23.
Question 23
These metaphors are not interchangeable

1 point

tainted mirror/broken mirror

platform/forum

lapdog/sheepdog

24.
Question 24
In this course, we distinguished three approaches to communication: the linear, reception/signification, and cultural approach. This distinction

1 point

has been in use since the beginning of the twentieth century

is by no means fixed or universally agreed upon by scholars

is fixed in the sense that theories clearly belong to this or that approach

25.
Question 25
A replication study

1 point

is mainly a tool for students to hone their research skills

is a study that was conducted unnecessarily because it repeats an existing study

is an important check on the reliability of existing studies

 

 

 

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